"""
By Kirby Urner, 4D Solutions, Portland, Oregon
(copyleft) 2006

Last revised by the original author:  14 Nov 2006 (added Moon class)

Complex numbers provide machinery for rotating in the XY plane,
where the Y axis is "imaginary", the X axis "real".

When two complex numbers multiply, their magnitudes are
multiplied (think of vectors) while their angles get added.
By keeping the magnitudes = 1, we focus on the angles.  A
scale factor applied afterwards can change the radius of
the orbit.

Or we may use the fact that e**(theta*complex(0,1)) takes us
around in a circle.

This 2nd technique shows up in a Planet class, easiest for
having multiple balls, each with its own radius, color, increment,
size of orbit.

Since visual is expecting three floating points (x,y,z) for
position, we use c.real and c.imag to break c into two
floating point numbers for plotting purposes.

"""

import cmath
import math
from visual import *

def orbit1():
    """
    multiply clock hand by a one degree incrementer
    """
    m  = complex(1,0)  # vector pointing to 3 o'clock

    angle = math.radians(1.0)
    # normalized to unit radius (clock diameter = 2)

    onedegree  = complex(cos(angle), sin(angle)) 
    theball = sphere(pos = (m.real, m.imag), radius = 0.1, color = color.red )
    while True:
        m = m * onedegree  # multiplying causes rotation

        theball.pos = (m.real, m.imag)
        rate(100)

def orbit2():
    """
    use e**(theta * i) to get coordinates of rotating ball
    cmath.exp handles a complex number
    """
    onedegree = math.radians(1.0)
    i = complex(0,1)
    angle = 0
    theball = sphere(pos = (1,0,0), radius = 0.1, color = color.green )
    while True:
        angle += onedegree
        coords = cmath.exp(angle * i)
        theball.pos = (coords.real, coords.imag)
        rate(50)

class Planet (object):  # subclassing object gives a 'new style' class

    """
    Orbit around (0,0,0) by increment (degrees) per each move invocation
    """
    def __init__(self, distance=1.0, radius=0.1, increment=1, color = color.red):
        self.pos = (1.0, 0.0, 0.0)
        self.distance = distance
        self.radius = radius
        self.color = color
        self.theball = sphere(pos = self.pos, radius = self.radius, color = self.color)
        self.increment = math.radians(increment)
        self.angle = 0
        
    def move(self):
        self.angle = self.angle + self.increment
        coords = cmath.exp(self.angle * complex(0,1))
        self.coords = (coords.real * self.distance, coords.imag * self.distance)
        self.theball.pos = (self.coords[0], self.coords[1])

class Moon(Planet):
    """
    Orbit around planet (1st argument) by increment (degrees) per each move invocation
    """    
    def __init__(self, planet, distance=1.0, radius=0.1, increment=1, color = color.red):
        super(Moon,self).__init__(distance, radius, increment, color)
        self.planet = planet

    def move(self):
        self.angle = self.angle + self.increment
        coords = cmath.exp(self.angle * complex(0,1))
        self.coords = (coords.real * self.distance + self.planet.coords[0],
                             coords.imag * self.distance + self.planet.coords[1])
        self.theball.pos = (self.coords[0], self.coords[1])
        
def solarsystem():
    sun = Planet(distance = 0, radius = 0.8, color = color.yellow)
    p1 = Planet(distance=6.0, radius=0.3, increment=0.5, color = color.green)
    p2 = Planet(distance=4.0, radius=0.1, increment=1.0, color = color.red)
    m1 = Moon(p1, distance = 1.0, radius = 0.1, increment = 3.0, color = color.cyan)
    
    while True:
        p1.move()
        p2.move()
        m1.move()
        rate(50)
# code highlighted using py2html.py version 0.8